## Thursday, October 24, 2013

### Hack.lu CTF - Crypto 200 (Geier's Lambda)

Hack.lu CTF was great! !SpamAndHex finished at #15, so there is room for improvement, but at the end of the first day we were at #3, which was pretty nice. Geier's Lambda was a crypto challenge, which we managed to solve third out of all the teams, even landing a bonus point. I did not work on this alone, thanks to the 2 other guys that worked on this!

We were given a Haskell source for a cryptographic cipher. The task was to find a collision with a given key, which was "Le1sRI6I". First we wanted to identify the cipher to see if it's an already existing one. By googling the hex version of the integer constants (2654435769, 3337565984) we found that this is most probably the xTea cipher.

First we were trying to bruteforce the collision, but we were looking at it the wrong way. However, we found something important when playing with the haskell code -- the cipher only uses the first 4 characters from the key.

After inspecting the source in detail we found that the "hash" function of the code is not used anywhere, and this gave us a clue. We translated the haskell version to python:
def hash(passwd):
acc = (1, 0)
for x in passwd:
(a, b) = acc
acc = (a + ord(x), a + b + ord(x))
(a, b) = acc
return a | (b << 16)
All this function does is collecting the sum of ASCII values into one part of the tuple, and collecting another aggregate value into the other. It is quite easy to find a collision for this. This is the bruteforce approach:
def brute():
arr = string.ascii_letters + string.digits
for x in arr:
for y in arr:
for z in arr:
for w in arr:
s = "%c%c%c%c" % (x,y,z,w)
if hash(s) == hash("Le1s"):
print s
This gave us a list of around 1000 possible keys. Then we wrote a function that evaluates the resulting key by executing the Haskell binary (that we compiled from the source) and checking the number of ASCII characters in the deciphered result:
process = Popen(['./pwd_check', pwd], stdout=PIPE)
stdout, stderr = process.communicate()
dat = stdout
hex_str = "%x" % (int(dat))
if len(hex_str) % 2 != 0:
hex_str = "0" + hex_str
res =  unhexlify(hex_str)
score = 0
for ch in string.ascii_letters + string.digits + " _":
if ch in res:
score += 1
if score > 5:
print res
And after running this, we got the key straight away: T3aP4rTy

Thanks again to the FluxFingers team for the nice challenges.

1. May be flag is T3aP4rTy?
Decryption key - c3Po?

2. Oh, I accidentally copy-pasted the wrong password. Thanks, I fixed it now! Nice easter egg, I didn't see the decryption hey was c3Po :)

3. All right!
We didn't solve it. We had yTr4Pa3T and few other variants, lol.

4. Why did you take so strange culling function?

for ch in string.ascii_letters + string.digits + " _":
if ch in res:
score += 1
if score > 5:
print res

5. I had no idea what the result would be after deciphering, but I expected it to be some text. I was in a hurry (this is why my "CTF" code is always a mess), so I didn't think it through completely, but the first result was the correct key :)
I could have tuned the parameters in case we didn't get it on the first try.